皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗切斯卡

皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗切斯卡

Piero della Francesca

艺术家名:皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗切斯卡(Piero della Francesca)
生卒日期: 1415年 - 1492年
国籍:意大利
皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗切斯卡的全部作品(54)

Piero della Francesca . 1415[1] – 12 October 1492), originally named Piero di Benedetto, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. To contemporaries he was also known as a mathematician and geometer. Nowadays Piero della Francesca is chiefly appreciated for his art. His painting is characterized by its serene humanism, its use of geometric forms and perspective. His most famous work is the cycle of frescoes The History of the True Cross in the church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo.
皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗切斯卡,原名皮耶罗·迪贝内代托,是文艺复兴早期的意大利画家。对同时代人来说,他也被称为数学家和几何学家。如今,皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯卡主要因其艺术而受到赞赏。他的绘画以宁静的人文主义、几何形式和透视法的运用为特点。他最著名的作品是托斯卡纳阿雷佐镇圣弗朗西斯科教堂的壁画《真十字架的历史》。

Early years
Piero was born Piero di Benedetto in the town of Borgo Santo Sepolcro,modern-day Tuscany, to Benedetto de' Franceschi, a tradesman, and Romana di Perino da Monterchi, members of the Florentine and Tuscan Franceschi noble family. His father died before his birth, and he was called Piero della Francesca after his mother, who was referred to as "la Francesca" due to her marriage into the Franceschi family (similar to how Lisa Gherardini became known as "la Gioconda" through her marriage into the Giocondo family). Romana supported his education in mathematics and art.
He was most probably apprenticed to the local painter Antonio di Giovanni d'Anghiari, because in documents about payments it is noted that he was working with Antonio in 1432 and May 1438. He certainly took notice of the work of some of the Sienese artists active in San Sepolcro during his youth; e.g. Sassetta. In 1439 Piero received, together with Domenico Veneziano, payments for his work on frescoes for the church of Sant'Egidio in Florence, now lost. In Florence he must have met leading masters like Fra Angelico, Luca della Robbia, Donatello, and Brunelleschi. The classicism of Masaccio's frescoes and his majestic figures in the Santa Maria del Carmine were for him an important source of inspiration. Dating of Piero's undocumented work is difficult because his style does not seem to have developed over the years.
皮耶罗出生于皮耶罗·迪贝内代托(Piero di Benedetto),现代托斯卡纳的博尔戈·桑托·塞波尔克罗(Borgo Santo Sepolcro),商人贝内代托·德弗朗切斯基(Benedetto de’Franceschi)和佛罗伦萨人和托斯卡纳·弗朗切斯基贵族家庭成员罗曼娜·迪佩里诺·达蒙特尔奇(Romana di Perino da Montechi)。他的父亲在他出生前就去世了,他被称为皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯卡(Piero della Francesca),他的母亲因与弗朗西斯卡(Franceschi)家族结婚而被称为“拉·弗朗西斯卡”(类似于丽莎·格拉迪尼(Lisa Gherardini)通过与乔孔多家族结婚而被称为“拉·乔康达”)。罗曼娜支持他的数学和艺术教育。他很可能是当地画家安东尼奥·迪乔瓦尼·德昂希亚里(Antonio di Giovanni d'Anghiari)的学徒,因为在有关付款的文件中,人们注意到他在1432年和1438年5月与安东尼奥合作。他肯定注意到了一些年轻时活跃在圣塞波尔克罗的锡耶纳艺术家的作品;萨塞塔。1439年,皮耶罗与多梅尼科·威尼斯亚诺一起收到了为佛罗伦萨圣埃吉迪奥教堂(Sant’Egidio church of Sant’Egidio)绘制壁画的报酬,该教堂现已失传。在佛罗伦萨,他一定见过弗拉·安吉利科、卢卡·德拉·罗比亚、多纳泰罗和布鲁内莱斯基等大师。马萨乔壁画的古典主义风格和他在《圣玛丽亚•德尔•卡门》(Santa Maria del Carmine)中庄严的人物形象对他来说是一个重要的灵感来源。对皮耶罗未经记录的作品进行年代测定是困难的,因为他的风格似乎没有经过多年的发展。

Mature work
Piero returned to his hometown in 1442 and was elected to the City Council of Sansepolcro. Three years later, he received his first commission, to paint the Madonna della Misericordia altarpiece for the church of the Misericordia in Sansepolcro,which was completed in the early 1460s. In 1449 he executed several frescoes in the Castello Estense and the church of Sant'Andrea of Ferrara, now also lost. His influence was particularly strong in the later
Ferrarese allegorical works of Cosimo Tura.
The Baptism of Christ, now in the National Gallery in London, was completed in about 1450 for the high altar of the church of the Priory of S. Giovanni Battista at Sansepolcro. Other notable works are the frescoes of The Resurrection in Sansepolcro, and the Madonna del parto in Monterchi, near Sansepolcro.
皮耶罗于1442年回到家乡,被选为桑塞波尔克罗市议会议员。三年后,他接受了第一次委托,为桑塞波尔克罗的米塞尔科迪亚教堂绘制圣母玛利亚·德拉·米塞尔科迪亚祭坛画,这座教堂于14世纪60年代初完工。1449年,他在埃斯滕塞城堡和费拉拉的圣安德烈教堂(现在也消失了)制作了几幅壁画。他的影响在后期尤为强烈。
科西莫·图拉的寓言作品。现在位于伦敦国家美术馆的《基督的洗礼》大约于1450年在桑塞波克罗的圣乔瓦尼·巴蒂斯塔修道院教堂的高坛上完成。其他著名的作品还有桑塞波克罗的复活壁画,以及桑塞波克罗附近蒙特尔奇的麦当娜·德尔·帕托(Madonna del parto)。
Two years later he was in Rimini, working for the condottiero Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. In 1451, during that sojourn, he executed the famous fresco of St. Sigismund and Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta[9] in the Tempio Malatestiano, as well as a portrait of Sigismondo. In Rimini, Piero may have met the famous Renaissance mathematician and architect Leon Battista Alberti, who had redesigned the Tempio Malatestiano, although it is known that Alberti directed the execution of his designs for the church by correspondence with his building supervisor. Thereafter Piero was active in Ancona, Pesaro and Bologna.In 1454, he signed a contract for the Polyptych of Saint Augustine in the church of Sant'Agostino in Sansepolcro. The central panel of this polyptych is lost, and the four panels of the wings, with representations of saints, are now scattered around the world. A few years later, summoned by Pope Nicholas V, he moved to Rome, where he executed frescoes in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, of which only fragments remain. Two years later he was again in the Papal capital, painting frescoes in the Vatican Palace, which have since been destroyed
两年后,他在里米尼为康多蒂罗·西吉斯蒙多·潘多尔福·马拉泰斯塔工作。1451年,在那次逗留期间,他在《马拉泰斯提诺节拍》中完成了著名的圣西吉斯蒙德和西吉斯蒙多·潘多尔福·马拉泰斯塔壁画[9],以及西吉斯蒙多的肖像。在里米尼,皮耶罗可能会见了文艺复兴时期著名数学家兼建筑师利昂·巴蒂斯塔·阿尔贝蒂,他重新设计了坦皮奥·马拉斯特里亚诺教堂,尽管大家都知道阿尔贝蒂通过与建筑主管的通信指导了教堂设计的实施。此后,皮耶罗活跃在安科纳、佩萨罗和博洛尼亚。
1454年,他在桑塞波克罗的圣阿戈斯蒂诺教堂为圣奥古斯丁的多面体画签订了一份合同。这幅多面体的中央嵌板已经丢失,翅膀上的四块嵌板,以及圣徒的象征,现在分散在世界各地。几年后,在教皇尼古拉斯五世的传唤下,他搬到了罗马,在那里他在圣玛丽亚·马焦雷大教堂(Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore)完成了壁画的制作,其中只有残片。两年后,他再次来到罗马教皇的首都,在梵蒂冈宫殿中绘制壁画,这些壁画后来被摧毁。

Frescoes in San Francesco at Arezzo阿雷佐圣弗朗西斯科的壁画
In 1452, Piero della Francesca was called to Arezzo to replace Bicci di Lorenzo in painting the frescoes of the basilica of San Francesco. The work was finished in 1464.The History of the True Cross cycle of frescoes is generally considered among his masterworks and those of Renaissance painting in general. The story in these frescoes derives from legendary medieval sources as to how timber relics of the True Cross came to be found.These stories were collected in the Golden Legend of Jacopo da Varazze (Jacopo da Varagine) of the mid-13th century.
1452年,皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯卡(Piero della Francesca)被请到阿雷佐(Arezzo)代替比奇·迪·洛伦佐(Bicci di Lorenzo)绘制圣弗朗西斯科大教堂的壁画。该作品于1464年完成。壁画的真实交叉循环的历史通常被认为是他的杰作之一,也是文艺复兴时期绘画的杰作之一。这些壁画中的故事来源于中世纪传说中关于如何发现真十字架木材遗迹的资料。这些故事收集于13世纪中叶的《雅格布·达·瓦拉津黄金传说》。

Piero's activity in Urbino皮耶罗在乌尔比诺的活动
At some point, Giovanni Santi invited Piero to Urbino. Between 1469 and 1486 Piero worked repeatedly in the service of Count Federico III da Montefeltro (Duke in 1474).The Flagellation is generally considered Piero's oldest work in Urbino (c. 1455–1470). It is one of the most famous and controversial pictures of the early Renaissance. As discussed in its own entry, it is marked by an air of geometric sobriety, in addition to presenting a perplexing enigma as to the nature of the three men standing at the foreground.
在某个时刻,乔瓦尼·桑蒂邀请皮耶罗去乌尔比诺。1469年至1486年间,皮耶罗反复为费德里科三世伯爵蒙特费特罗(1474年的公爵)服务。鞭毛通常被认为是皮耶罗在乌尔比诺最古老的作品(约1455-1470年)。这是文艺复兴早期最著名和最有争议的照片之一。正如在它自己的条目中所讨论的,它的特点是几何学上的清醒,此外,对于站在前景的三个人的性质,它还呈现出一个令人困惑的谜。
Another famous work painted in Urbino is the Double Portrait of Federico and his wife Battista Sforza, in the Uffizi.[13] The portraits in profile take their inspiration from large bronze medals and stucco roundels with the official portraits of Fedederico and his wife. Other paintings made in Urbino are the monumental Montefeltro Altarpiece (1474) in the Brera Gallery in Milan and probably also the Madonna of Senigallia.
在乌尔比诺绘制的另一幅著名作品是《乌菲齐》中费德里科及其妻子巴蒂斯塔·斯福尔扎的双幅肖像。[13]侧面肖像的灵感来源于大型铜牌和灰泥圆饰,以及费德里科及其妻子的官方肖像。乌尔比诺的其他绘画作品还有米兰布雷拉美术馆的纪念性蒙特费尔特罗祭坛画(1474年),可能还有塞尼加利亚的圣母像。
In Urbino Piero met the painters Melozzo da Forlì, Fra Carnevale, and the Flemish Justus van Gent, the mathematician Fra Luca Pacioli, the architect Francesco di Giorgio Martini, and probably also Leon Battista Alberti.
在乌尔比诺,皮耶罗会见了画家梅洛佐·达福尔、弗拉·卡内瓦尔、佛兰芒人贾斯特斯·范根特、数学家弗拉·卢卡·帕西奥利、建筑师弗朗切斯科·迪乔治·马蒂尼,可能还有利昂·巴蒂斯塔·阿尔贝蒂。

Later years
In his later years, painters such as Perugino and Luca Signorelli frequently visited his workshop. He completed the treatise On Perspective in Painting in the mid-1470s to 1480s. By 1480, his vision began to deteriorate, but he continued writing treatises such as Short Book on the Five Regular Solids in 1485. It is documented that Piero rented a house in Rimini in 1482. Piero made his will in 1487 and he died five years later, on 12 October 1492, in his own house in San Sepolcro. He left his possessions to his family and the church。
晚年,佩鲁吉诺和卢卡·西诺雷利等画家经常参观他的工作室。他在1470年代中期至1480年代完成了关于绘画透视的论文。到1480年,他的视力开始恶化,但他继续撰写论文,如1485年关于五种常规固体的短篇小说。据记载,皮耶罗于1482年在里米尼租了一所房子。皮耶罗于1487年立下遗嘱,五年后,1492年10月12日,他在圣塞波尔克罗自己的家中去世。他把财产留给了家人和教会。

Criticism and interpretation批评与解释
Recently, the Frick Collection in New York until 19 May 2013, collected seven of the eight extant paintings of Piero known to exist in the United States for exhibition. Of the seven pieces in the exhibit, critic Jerry Saltz writing in New York magazine singled out Piero's Virgin and Child Enthroned With Four Angels for its exemplary qualities.
最近,2013年5月19日前在纽约的弗里克收藏馆(Frick Collection)收藏了已知存在于美国的八幅皮耶罗现存绘画中的七幅,以供展览。在展出的七件作品中,纽约杂志的评论家杰里·萨尔茨(Jerry Saltz)特别指出皮耶罗的处女和孩子与四位天使一起坐在宝座上是其典范
Saltz states that, "The Virgin and child are elevated two steps. They are in a world itself apart from this world apart. Mary isn't looking at her child and looks instead at the rose he reaches for. You begin to glean the revelation she is having. The flower represents love, devotion, and beauty. It also symbolizes blood and the crown of thorns Christ will wear. This child who will suffer a horrendous death reaches for his acceptance of fate. Mary does not pull the flower back. You sense an inner agony, noticing her deep-blue robe open to reveal scarlet beneath, symbol of outward passion and pain to come. In the dead-center vertical line of the painting is Christ's right palm that will be nailed to the cross."
萨尔茨说:“圣母和孩子被提升了两级。他们在一个与这个世界不同的世界里。玛丽没有看着她的孩子,而是看着他伸手去拿的玫瑰。你开始收集她正在得到的启示,花代表爱、奉献和美丽。它还象征着血和基督将佩戴的荆棘冠冕。这个孩子将遭受可怕的死亡,他开始接受命运。玛丽没有把花拔回去。你感觉到内心的痛苦,注意到她深蓝色的长袍打开,露出下面的猩红,象征着即将到来的外部激情和痛苦。在画的死中心垂直线是基督的右手,将被钉在十字架上。
Saltz accepted this oil painting as the most exceptional work of Piero on display in the exhibit.
萨尔茨认为这幅油画是皮耶罗在展览中展出的最杰出的作品

英文来自维基百科https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_della_Francesca
翻译来自渐盈月 有不对之处欢迎指正


皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗切斯卡作品收藏于:

Museo Civico - Sansepolcro(11)

Basilica di San Francesco - Arezzo(9)

翁布里亚国家美术馆(9)

The Frick Art Museum - Pittsburgh(3)

伦敦国家美术馆(3)

Palazzo Ducale di Urbino e Galleria Nazionale delle Marche(2)

乌菲兹美术馆(2)

国立古代美术馆(里斯本)(1)

波尔迪·佩佐利博物馆(1)

伊莎贝拉嘉纳艺术博物馆(1)

弗里克收藏(1)

Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice(1)

大都会艺术博物馆(1)

布雷拉画廊(1)

柏林画廊(1)

卢浮宫(1)

提森-博内米萨博物馆(1)

美国国家艺术馆(1)

马萨诸塞州克拉克艺术学院(1)